Share Splits – Subdividing Company Shares

Navigating the world of corporate finance can be a complex but crucial aspect of running a startup or SME. One financial manoeuvre that companies often explore is the share split. Understanding what a share split is and how it can benefit your business is essential for making informed financial decisions. This comprehensive guide will break down the concept of share splits, explain their advantages, delve into the legal framework in England and Wales, and outline the steps to execute a share split successfully. We’ll also cover some frequently asked questions to help demystify the process.

What is a Share Split

A share split, also known as a stock split, is a corporate action in which a company divides its existing shares into multiple new shares. The overall value of the company remains the same, but the number of shares increases, reducing the price per share. This does not alter the company’s market capitalization but adjusts the individual share price, often making the stock more accessible to a broader range of investors.

Share splits are typically expressed in ratios. For example, in a 2-for-1 split, each existing share is divided into two shares. If you owned one share before the split, you would own two shares after the split, and the price per share would be halved. This process can apply to various ratios like 3-for-1, 4-for-1, and so on, depending on the company’s objectives.

The primary goal of a share split is often to enhance liquidity. By lowering the price per share, companies make their stock more appealing to smaller investors. While the proportional ownership of each shareholder remains unchanged, the increased number of shares can facilitate trading and potentially attract a more diverse pool of investors.

Another aspect to consider is the psychological impact on the market. Lower-priced shares can appear more affordable and attractive to retail investors, even though the underlying value remains unchanged. This can sometimes lead to increased demand and drive the share price up over time.

Why Implement a Share Split for a Startup or SME

For startups and SMEs, share splits can be a strategic tool to enhance the marketability and affordability of their shares. By reducing the price per share, companies can make their stock more accessible to potential investors, thereby broadening the shareholder base. This can be particularly advantageous for smaller businesses looking to attract more retail investors.

Liquidity is another crucial benefit. With more shares available in the market, trading can become more active. Increased liquidity can lead to a more stable share price, reducing volatility and making the stock less susceptible to sharp price movements. This stability can be particularly appealing to long-term investors.

A share split can also signal growth and confidence to the market. Companies that perform well and experience significant stock price increases may opt for a share split to keep shares affordable and to maintain a positive image. This can boost investor sentiment and confidence, potentially leading to further investments and support from the market.

Additionally, for employee stock option plans (ESOPs) or other incentive schemes, a share split can make these options more attractive. Lower share prices can make stock options more attainable for employees, aligning their interests with the company’s long-term success and potentially improving employee morale and retention.

Legal Framework for Share Splits in England and Wales

In England and Wales, the legal framework governing share splits is primarily set out in the Companies Act 2006. This comprehensive legislation outlines the procedures and requirements that companies must adhere to when conducting a share split. Understanding these legal stipulations is crucial for ensuring compliance and avoiding any potential legal pitfalls.

Firstly, companies must have the authority to undertake a share split as per their Articles of Association. If the Articles do not contain provisions allowing for a share split, they may need to be amended. This typically requires a special resolution, which necessitates the approval of at least 75% of the shareholders voting in favour.

Once the requisite authority is in place, the company must pass a board resolution to approve the share split. Detailed documentation outlining the terms of the split, including the split ratio and the effective date, must be prepared. This documentation must then be filed with Companies House, ensuring that the public register reflects the updated share structure.

The company must also inform its shareholders and other stakeholders about the share split. This involves issuing a formal notice detailing the reasons for the split, the process involved, and the anticipated benefits. Ensuring clear and transparent communication can help mitigate any potential concerns or confusion among shareholders.

Steps to Execute a Share Split Successfully

Executing a share split involves several critical steps, each of which must be carefully managed to ensure a smooth and compliant process. The first step is to review the company’s Articles of Association to confirm that a share split is permissible. If necessary, initiate the process to amend the Articles, securing the required shareholder approval.

Next, the board of directors should convene to pass a resolution authorizing the share split. This resolution should clearly outline the details of the split, including the ratio and the effective date. Once the board resolution is passed, the company must prepare and file the necessary documentation with Companies House to update the public register.

Communication is key during this process. The company must inform its shareholders and other relevant stakeholders about the upcoming share split. This can be done through formal notices, shareholder meetings, and other communication channels. Providing clear and comprehensive information can help ensure that all parties understand the rationale and benefits of the share split.

Finally, once all legal and administrative steps have been completed, the share split can be executed. This typically involves updating the company’s share register to reflect the new number of shares and issuing new share certificates to shareholders. Ensuring that all records are accurately updated is essential for maintaining compliance and transparency.

Share Split FAQ

1. What is the difference between a share split and a reverse share split?

A share split increases the number of shares while decreasing the price per share. Conversely, a reverse share split reduces the number of shares while increasing the price per share. Both actions do not change the company’s overall market capitalization but adjust the individual share price.

2. How does a share split affect dividends?

After a share split, the amount of dividends paid per share typically adjusts according to the split ratio. For example, if a company conducts a 2-for-1 split, the dividend per share would generally be halved to maintain the overall dividend payout.

3. Do share splits impact shareholder equity?

No, share splits do not impact shareholder equity. The total value of an individual’s holdings remains unchanged, as the increase in the number of shares is offset by the decrease in the share price.

4. Are there any tax implications for shareholders in England and Wales?

Generally, share splits are not considered taxable events in England and Wales. Shareholders simply end up with more shares at a lower price per share. However, it is always advisable to consult a tax advisor for personalized advice.


A share split can be a strategic move for startups and SMEs, offering numerous benefits such as enhanced liquidity, broader investor appeal, and improved market perception. However, executing a share split involves navigating a complex legal landscape and adhering to stringent regulatory requirements. Ensuring compliance and clear communication throughout the process is crucial for a successful share split.

While this guide provides a comprehensive overview of share splits, the intricacies of corporate finance and legal compliance often necessitate expert advice. Engaging with a knowledgeable lawyer can help ensure that your share split is executed smoothly and in full compliance with the law. For startups and SMEs looking to explore this financial strategy, professional legal support can be invaluable. Consider consulting an expert via our platform to guide you through this intricate process.

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